An evaluation of the tradition female circumcision

Rite of Passage Or Violation of Rights? Althaus First published online: September 2, Female circumcision, the partial or total cutting away of the external female genitalia, has been practiced for centuries in parts of Africa, generally as one element of a rite of passage preparing young girls for womanhood and marriage. Often performed without anesthetic under septic conditions by lay practitioners with little or no knowledge of human anatomy or medicine, female circumcision can cause death or permanent health problems as well as severe pain.

An evaluation of the tradition female circumcision

Traditional male circumcision in eastern and southern Africa: Correspondence to Andrea Wilcken e-mail: Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; The procedure herein referred to as traditional male circumcision is usually performed in a non-clinical setting by a traditional provider with no formal medical training.

When carried out as a rite of passage into manhood, traditional male circumcision is mainly performed on adolescents or young men. Our aim in this systematic review was to evaluate traditional male circumcision in eastern and southern Africa in terms of its prevalence, the age at which the procedure is undertaken and the complications arising from it.

The search was limited to the period from January to February and covered articles published in any language.

We also searched all the references listed in the articles identified during the initial search. For assessing prevalence and age, we included cross-sectional, cohort and register studies; for assessing complications, we also included intervention studies. Studies reporting on male circumcision provided through medical facilities were excluded, as were studies focusing on newborn and infant circumcision.

Evaluation of studies Two medically trained reviewers AW, TK independently evaluated identified studies in terms of methods, study design and representativeness of the study population.

The reviewers then extracted the data relating to prevalence, age and complications of traditional male circumcision. Any discrepancies in the evaluation were resolved by consensus. Results The review identified 11 articles reporting on 12 studies Fig. Of the included articles, six reported on the prevalence of traditional male circumcision, 11 — 16 eight on age at the time of the procedure 11 — 18 and six on complications following the procedure.

Delayed wound healing and keloid scarring were also associated with the use of a powder containing penicillin and talc that is used for wound care by traditional providers in Kenya.

Such care included tight bandages traditionally believed to improve wound healingwhich constricted the blood supply of the penile skin, in some cases causing occlusion of the deep dorsal arteries and leading to gangrene.

Amputations or mutilations occurred in 0. Septicaemia, pneumonia and dehydration were the most frequent causes of death. Complications after circumcision by traditional versus medical providers Three studies compared complications following circumcision by traditional and medical providers.

Among the study participants, infection was equally common among those circumcised traditionally and medically data for participants from self-report. Traditionally circumcised boys were less likely to access post-operative care odds ratio: Discussion Main findings National prevalence of traditional male circumcision is unknown for most countries in eastern and southern Africa.

Data were available for Namibia, however, and indicated that one in four circumcisions is done by a traditional circumciser. In general, poor postoperative wound care seemed to account for more complications than the circumcision itself, 17 — 19 a finding that has important implications for the training of traditional circumcisers.

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Suturing the wound after traditional male circumcision is not a routine practice, but different traditional techniques e. The exception was the study by Peltzer, which evaluated the impact of a training intervention for traditional circumcisers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.“Female genital mutilation and cutting is against the law.

However, here tradition is stronger than the law,” said Zuleka Ahmed of the Somali Region Women’s Affairs Office, a government body working with UNICEF to end the practice. Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.

The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common.

An evaluation of the tradition female circumcision

Traditional male circumcision is usually associated with a religious or cultural ceremony. The primary global determinant is religion, and almost all Muslim and Jewish males are circumcised. 1, 2 Muslim boys may be circumcised at any age between birth and puberty. FGM/C Classification.

Four types of FGM/C procedures are typically carried out. A clitoridectomy involves removing some or all of the clitoris. The second type, known as excision, is the removal of some or all of the clitoris and the .

Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage Or Violation of Rights? | Guttmacher Institute

Conclusion Published studies on traditional male circumcision in eastern and southern Africa are limited; thus, it is not possible to accurately assess the prevalence of complications following the procedure or the impact . Welcome to the programmatic area on voluntary medical male circumcision within MEASURE Evaluation’s Family Planning and Reproductive Health Indicators Database.

This is one of the subareas found in the men’s health section of sexual and reproductive health (RH) section of the database.

Female genital mutilation - Wikipedia