Burning Chrome The Gernsback Continuum Mercifully, the whole thing is starting to fade, to be- come an episode. There was that flying-wing liner over San Francisco last week, but it was almost translucent.
Abstract signs engraved on ostrich eggshells used as water carriers, dating to 60, BCE. They portray animals and humans, and are thought to represent religious beliefs. For more about rock painting of this period, see: Nature and Context of African Tribal Art African art had a very different function in a very different way of life, from that of European or Western culture.
To begin with, it was an integral part of an all-pervading religion. Individual images were representatives, at times even embodiments though not "idols" to be worshipped, as many Europeans mistakenly used to think of the vital forces believed to exist in all living matter.
Often these images spoke for the spirits of the dead, thus perpetuating the vital essence of tribal ancestry, and becoming identified with the ancestral spirits. Although there are secular aspects to most Belonging the intricate mix of social the forms used, and some artistic objects are purely decorative and ornamental, in general, African tribal artefacts were created as religious art - for a particular ritual or ceremonial use.
This is true not only for masks and figurines but also for carved items ranging from musical instruments, sceptres and ceremonial axes to stools, doorposts and doors. Although the individual craftsman or artist might be recognized and highly regarded as a member of the community, the conception of the thing made as a "work of art" in museum terms was very rare.
In no instance is this more clear than in that of one of the most widespread of African art forms - the mask.
In European exhibitions, African masks are typically shown emotionally and physically stilled in a glass case, taken out of time, but their true context was in motion, in dance. African Masks have been created in many different forms - some were designed to be worn not on the head but on the arm or at the hip; many were designed as the apex of a whole attendant regalia, of a cloaking garment of straw, twine, bark-cloth, furs - accompanied perhaps by an arrangement of shells, or ivory or metal objects.
Transfigured, almost transubstantiated in all this, the masked native relinquished his own personality, and became the vehicle of superhuman spiritual power. When this spirit spoke through the masked dancer, he became its sounding-board and mouthpiece.
The mask had to be awe-inspiring, both to satisfy the spirit as a worthy medium for its temporary habitation and to demonstrate its authority to onlookers. Yet the forms which masks have taken across West and Central Africa - while they can be classified, as forms, into various stylistic divisions and subdivisions - are not at all consistently related to their meaning or function.
Very similar spiritual concepts could find very different physical expression in different tribal cultures, even if the use of white pigment on a mask, for example, usually denoted a direct connection with the dead. A lofty forehead seems generally to be associated with wisdom but naturalistic, if simplified, masks which to Western eyes suggest a serene classicism, are found amongst a large range of tribes with very different associations and functions, including aggressive ones.
Once the connection of a carving with its original function is broken or lost, it is very difficult to establish the purpose for which it was created. Most African masks are anthropomorphic, though portraiture in any sense is very rare; the faces of the masks may show incisions, reminding us that one important medium of tribal art is the ritual painting or scarring of the living body with traditional patterns.
Animal and bird masks also occur often antelopes or bush-cows ; masks still persist in several areas under Islamic influence, but often in forms stylized almost beyond recognition.
Carved figures are as widespread and popular as masks, and like the latter, relate to ritual, although some tribes - such as the prosperous and settled Baule on the Ivory Coast - made carvings almost as luxury goods.
The Yoruba tribe in Nigeria were skillful carvers of figures in the round, and often crowned their usually massive masks with groups of highly animated mannikins, as if a party were in progress.
Among the Yoruba, too, as well as in some other tribes, such was the standard and prestige of African sculpture that sculptors could achieve a status and prestige somewhat similar to that of a successful artist in the West.
The study of African tribal art is still at an early stage, and the geographical area involved is enormous - the whole of West and Central Africa, with significant traditions, too, in East Africa. Moreover, wood, the dominant medium, is vulnerable to the climate and to termites or white ants, and most other materials used are also perishable - raffia, for instance, or cotton.
Both the subject matter and the context of traditional African arts has been altered by the impact of other cultures, not only recently but over a long period of time - Islam and Christianity, for instance, have been present in Africa for hundreds of years.
Even some elementary forms of body painting and face-painting are not yet fully understood. Oceanic Tribal Art Oceania includes four separate regions, or ethnogeographic groupings: Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia and Australasia.
The tribal art of Oceania means the artistic heritage and traditions of the natives indigenous to these four regions.Capturing only the intricate details belonging to the hair of strangers, the artist asks what a hairstyle might tell us about its wearer Posted in Art & Culture Art & Culture | 31 August “Hair on the head is an element all humans deal with to aid in self-perception, other’s perceptions and real world presentation”.
what is the relation between quality of social bond and social support? -the closer and the higher the quality of social bond, the more likely a person is to ask for and receive social support List the description of strong social support (4).
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Social networking provides us a opportunity to share information about ourselves along with other people, and people really like to talk about themselves. Which leaves us to question why are a lot of network marketing businesses so immune to integrating social networking in their advertising strategies?
It appears to be the ideal outlet for individuals wanting to discuss all of the. 3 The Sense of Belonging in New Urban Zones of Transition Anja Jørgensen Aalborg University abstract: In most modern sociological literature, it is a rarity to find analyses suggesting that social bonds and the sense of belonging can be strong in socially.