Organizational culture is a set of shared values, the unwritten rules which are often taken for granted, that guide the employees towards acceptable and rewarding behavior. The organizational culture exists at two distinct levels, visible and hidden. The visible aspect of the organization is reflected in artifacts, symbols and visible behavior of employees. The hidden aspect is related to underlying values and assumptions that employees make regarding the acceptable and unacceptable behaviors.
In reality, a manager has to use the existing resources for a given task, and must have the ability to understand the differences in individual behaviors and use them appropriately to increase the synergy.
In order to understand individual behavior and personalities, it is important to understand the basics of human cognition. Integrated human behavior model I have formulated an abstract model of human behavior which explains the process that produces the individual differences.
Cognition is the thought process in humans that describes how the information we constantly acquire is transformed, stored and used as knowledge in future decision making. It includes a wide range of mental processes like visual imagery, language, problem solving, decision making etc.
The brain receives the stimuli from the external environment through the sense, which is immediately registered in our sensory memory, which is large but keeps the information for few seconds only.
The observation process tries to match the information in the sensory memory with the previous knowledge and creates a perception of the stimuli, thereby abstracting useful information from the sensory memory.
This abstracted information then passes to the short-term memory or the working memory, which also caches the related knowledge from the long-term memory.
The short-term memory has slightly longer latency than the sensory memory, it is needed only till the reaction of the stimuli. The long term memory has enormous capacity and is the primary knowledge base. The other two important parameters are the desired outcome and the required response time to the stimuli.
At the center of the analytical mind is a myriad of cognitive processes that operate sequentially or in parallel, in complex permutations in order to satisfy these primary constraints.
The consequence of this entire cognitive activity is a response to the environmental stimuli, which is the observed as the behavior of the individual.
Finally, the resulting behavior is feed backed into the memory; it modifies the existing perceptual knowledge, seeds a new one or the stimuli and its response is simply ignored Dimensions of cognitive psychology The cognition can be characterized by considering the process itself and its robustness.
At a higher level of abstraction, the thinking can be characterized as rational or emotional, while its robustness is determined by it stability. Rational Vs Emotional Thinking Rational thinking is a response based on process of logical reasoning; it involves some form of mathematical or statistical knowledge where the process has implicit proof of its validity.
Attribution is one of the rational processes that involve determining the reason or cause of an observed behavior. Emotional thinking is a response based on how a person feels about the object in question. Neurologically, emotions follow a short cut pathway to limbic response, bypassing the other cognitive thought processes.
It can be considered as most primitive response when dealing with incomplete and uncertain sensory data.
However, emotions have considerable influence on decision making and other cognitive processes even with existence of alternate rational reasons. Stable Vs Evolving Experiences Every stimuli creates a response which is stored in the long-term memory, repetition of the same stimuli over a period of time, hard wires the response.
These patterns of stimuli and response form a stable section of our cognitive processes, thus as the person ages, more and more responses get hard-wired. On the other hand, stimuli that have little or no previously recorded responses are in the evolutionary stage, the response might change depending upon the cumulative degree of success of the previous responses.
In the organizational social system, the relationship between manager and the employees is not unidirectional but bidirectional.
If this bi-directional process is successful, it would create a behavioral congruence between manager and subordinate and would be a positive outcome.
Otherwise it would lead to dissatisfaction and frustration for both of them and would eventually lead to end of their relationship through job termination.
The subordinate will have a perception of his own job and non-work responsibilities and an expectation of how his manager would perceive the same.
Due to identification of this bi-directional relationship, the following discussion is adapted to reflect this concern. Factors Influencing Individual Behavior Abilities Abilities of a person are the natural or learnt traits.
Abilities can be classified into mental and physical abilities and different task requires different level of the two. Physical abilities include muscular strength, stamina, body coordination and motor skills.
Gender Although, research concludes that men and women are equal in their mental abilities and job performance, society does emphasize differences. However, absenteeism is one area where differences are found and can be attributed to being primary caregiver to children.
Race Race and culture exert significant influence when both workplace and society have considerable diversity. Stereotyping and attributing behavior based on race and culture are common mistakes that influence individual behavior.
It is important for both management and the staff of diverse workforce to learn about different cultures, their values, common artifacts and communication protocols.
This would create a more comfortable corporate culture and would subdue behaviors that might be perceived as insensitive and offensive.Organizational Behavior and Management Thinking tional behavior, describes several organizational behavior insights for health administration, and then offers an extended discussion and illus-tration of how the healthcare manager can .
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International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 9, No. 1 (), 35 semiotics to the development of information systems. Organizational resilience is defined as "the ability of a system to withstand changes in its environment and still function". It is a capability that involves organizations either being able to endure the environmental changes without having to permanently adapt, or the organization is forced to adapt a new way of working that better suits the new environmental conditions. Development (OD) has had a normative perspectives (Burke, ). Though concerned The remainder of this chapter will discuss the four forces in Figure 1 and how they relate to organizational behavior/culture, how organizational behavior/culture affects organizational behavior and development.. Organizational.
Community . The Role and Responsibility of Company Leadership in Shaping Organizational Culture - According to (Organic Workspaces, n. d) an organization’s culture refers to the observable, powerful forces in any organization, usually constituted by the employees’ shared values, beliefs, symbols, and behaviors.
Coursera provides universal access to the world’s best education, partnering with top universities and organizations to offer courses online. Group Norm Development and Leasership - Group Formation and Structure Group Development Norm Development Group communication networks Leadership Personality qualities relevant to leadership Task vs.
Relationship Leadership Leadership Styles The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the members of group 1 (The Fantastics) in terms of behavior by looking at personal experience and.
International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 9, No. 1 (), 35 semiotics to the development of information systems.